It “compiles from JavaScript to better JavaScript”, so why would any one want that?

According to the GitHub repo, closure compiler does many amazing things:

That’s pretty complicated. But no fear, this series will explore the Closure Compiler, one feature at a time.

Let’s follow their instructions and try to run it from the command line.

$ java -jar build/compiler.jar
var x = 17 + 25;

The output we get is:

var x=42;

What noticeable differences are there?

  1. 17 + 25 became 42
  2. Space between and after = is gone

So even for this simple one liner, closure compiler has managed to run 2 optimizations.

Let’s examine these optimizations closer, and what better way to do that then jump into the debugger :)

Running from the command line

We create file called in1.js with the contents var x = 17 + 25, and in our debug configuration specify the program arguments as --js_output_file=out.js in1.js.

We do this because we don’t want to be typing input in the Eclipse console (I don’t know how to do that :P)

The initial part isn’t that interesting, we just initiate the CommandLineRunner

    CommandLineRunner runner = new CommandLineRunner(args);
    if (runner.shouldRunCompiler()) {


Which delegates work to AbstractCommandLineRunner’s run() method

  public final void run() {
    int result = 0;
    int runs = 1;
    try {
      for (int i = 0; i < runs && result == 0; i++) {
        result = doRun();


Which then hands off to doRun()


I had to go into my debug configuration in eclipse and add the folder where externs.zip was located in so getResourceAsStream could find the file. Basically createExterns copies all the files in externs.zip into a list that will be used later.

The next steps sets up the compiler with the appropriate options

  protected int doRun() throws FlagUsageException, IOException {

    List<SourceFile> externs = createExterns();

    compiler = createCompiler();
    B options = createOptions();


The part where usually the runner will wait for user input is here:

      List<SourceFile> inputs = createSourceInputs(jsFiles);
      if (config.skipNormalOutputs) {
        compiler.init(externs, inputs, options);
      } else {
        result = compiler.compile(externs, inputs, options);


But because we supplied arguments to the parameter, it reads from that file and not stdin.

There are some set up steps again, and finally we jump into the compile method, the meat of which happens in a separate thread it seems:

  private Result compile() {
    return runInCompilerThread(new Callable<Result>() {
      public Result call() throws Exception {
        return getResult();


Because it is a separate thread, I had to set a breakpoint inside compileInternal in order to take a look at what’s happening.

Inside the compiler

Some very small set up to process compiler options and initialize progress state, but there’s a very interesting comment here:

  private void compileInternal() {
    setProgress(0.0, null);
    // 15 percent of the work is assumed to be for parsing (based on some
    // minimal analysis on big JS projects, of course this depends on options)
    setProgress(0.15, "parse");


We’re not going to dive into the parse method, that’s not what we’re after.

From a cursory look into the method, parse parses the inputs and returns an AST. This AST is stored in the jsRoot instance variable

And we end up in the optimize method! Okay I have a feeling this is where things are going to get exciting.



First it gathers up a list of optimizations that will be performed, e.g.

A list of all these optimizations can be found in the getOptimizations method of DefaultPassConfig.

From how the code looks like, each optimization is also called a pass.

  public void optimize() {
    List<PassFactory> optimizations = getPassConfig().getOptimizations();
    if (optimizations.isEmpty()) {


Observe how optimizations is a List of PassFactory (factory pattern).

The first pass is the normalize pass. It seems like for each pass there is a set of steps that must be followed, something like:

  1. startPass is called with the name of the pass
  2. actually process the pass
  3. endPass is called, probably for cleanup effects

startPass itself has a number of steps as well:

  1. check the current state of passing
  2. set currentPassName to signify what pass it is
  3. set currentTracer to a new Tracer

I haven’t dug into what a Tracer does, but from the comments it looks like it figures out how long a particular action took, and thus will be useful when you want to pin point slow areas in the code.

So let’s jump into the work that normalize actually does.

It’s not difficult to see what it does, because most of it is well document in the Normalize class.

Here’s directly quoting the docs:

 * The goal with this pass is to simplify the other passes,
 * by making less complex statements.
 * Starting with statements like:
 *   var a = 0, b = foo();
 * Which become:
 *   var a = 0;
 *   var b = foo();
 * The key here is only to break down things that help the other passes
 * and can be put back together in a form that is at least as small when
 * all is said and done.


If you keep looking down, you see descriptions about the 7 things that this class does.

After some set up, the process method of Normalize is called, and that’s where magic happens!


The first step is strange to me at first sight:

    new NodeTraversal(
        compiler, new NormalizeStatements(compiler, assertOnChange))
        .traverseRoots(externs, root);


It looks like this isn’t doing anything. But we we look into what NodeTraversal does, it actually takes in a Callback, and when it traverses the AST (traverseRoots), it calls particular methods of Callback at different points of traversing.

For example, traverseRoots calls traverseBranch

      traverseBranch(externs, scopeRoot);


and in traverseBranch, it calls the visit method of the callback

    callback.visit(this, n, parent);


In summary the NodeTraversal goes through the AST and at various points, asks the Callback if it wants to visit a particular node (Visitor pattern).

Now we can see what NormalizeStatements does.

There are really only 2 methods of interest here, shouldTraverse and visit.

shouldTraverse is NormalizeStatements’’ way of saying if it should descend down one level in the AST.

visit is what NormalizeStatements will do to modify the AST.

Looking into shouldTraverse, we see that first, it always returns true, and it does some normalizations inside of this method

    public boolean shouldTraverse(NodeTraversal t, Node n, Node parent) {

      return true;


If we dive deeper into the code we can see very well written comments why certain normalizations are done in the shouldTraverse method, and why others are done in the visit.

For example, in doStatementNormalizations, the extractForInitializer method is called, and the comments are as such:

     * Bring the initializers out of FOR loops.  These need to be placed
     * before any associated LABEL nodes. This needs to be done from the top
     * level label first so this is called as a pre-order callback (from
     * shouldTraverse).
     * @param n The node to inspect.
     * @param before The node to insert the initializer before.
     * @param beforeParent The parent of the node before which the initializer
     *     will be inserted.


Because it’s a AST traversal implemented with callbacks, it wasn’t easy to get to the code that was interesting. A lot of is was just descending the AST (in what looks like a depth first manner), before we finally get to the visit part of the code.

Particularly I hit a point where I ended up in this switch case:

        case Token.SETTER_DEF:
          if (!compiler.getLifeCycleStage().isNormalizedObfuscated()) {
            annotateConstantsByConvention(n, parent);


I couldn’t understand what Token.SETTER_DEF meant, so I went to the Variables panel in eclipse and looked at what n was (the switch block switched on n.getType()), and saw that n was “x”.

The rest of the process method looks similar, where callbacks are passed into a travesal, with different callbacks doing different things.

The slight differences are the types of Callbacks used.

NormalizeStatements implements the Callback interface at the highest level, and there over 20 classes or abstract classes that implement this interface.

MakeDeclaredNamesUnique implements the ScopedCallback, because when renaming variables, scope has to be considered. E.g. a variable that refers to a variable in the outer scope cannot be renamed to something different.

Here’s something that caused me difficulty in reading this particular method: there are multiple layers of abstraction here, which makes it pretty confusing.

  1. It’s not clear how many things process is actually doing.
  2. The actions are inconsistent. In some places, the construction of a NodeTraversal using new and calling traverseRoots happens on the same line. But in others, the Callback is constructed separately from the NodeTraversal, which are separate from actually calling the traverse method. In other places, these 3 steps are separated into another method.

Perhaps to clean up this method slightly, we can move each sub-processing step into its own method, like removeDuplicateDeclarations

    removeDuplicateDeclarations(externs, root);


Then process will look like this

public void process(Node externs, Node root) {
    normalizeStatements(externs, root);
    makeDeclaredNamesUnique(externs, root);
    removeDuplicateDeclarations(externs, root);
    propagateConstantAnnotationsOverVars(externs, root);

For our simple piece of code, normalize actually doesn’t do anything, so that was a pretty long detour. But I think we will see the patterns in normalize again thorughout the codebase, so it is still useful to examine it.

For each startPass, there is its dual endPass, which stops the Tracer (so a tracer probably records how long each compiler pass took).

The PhaseOptimizer

And we’re back in optimize! Here we hit something scary (to me) called the PhaseOptimizer. We throw all the optimizations in to the phaseOptimizer via its consume method, and basically consume organizes these PassFactory-ies into CompilePasses.

Like its name suggest, PhaseOptimizer does some optimizations. These are (for now) too complicated to get into, but here are relevant portions of the code that describes what happens:

   * Add the passes generated by the given factories to the compile sequence.
   * <p>
   * Automatically pulls multi-run passes into fixed point loops. If there
   * are 1 or more multi-run passes in a row, they will run together in
   * the same fixed point loop. The passes will run until they are finished
   * making changes.
   * <p>
   * The PhaseOptimizer is free to tweak the order and frequency of multi-run
   * passes in a fixed-point loop.
  void consume(List<PassFactory> factories) {


   * A compound pass that contains atomic passes and runs them until they reach
   * a fixed point.
   * <p>
   * Notice that this is a non-static class, because it includes the closure
   * of PhaseOptimizer.
  class Loop implements CompilerPass {


At the end of consume, what we have is passes which is a list of CompilerPass-es that will be run. We then call the process method of the PhaseOptimizer, which goes through each CompilerPass (in passes) and calls the process method of that CompilerPass.

This should look pretty familiar because Normalize actually implements CompilerPass, and so we have a clue of what happens in the process method of each CompilerPass.

I wanted to figure out which exact CompilerPass was causing the change, so I added some if else and print statements to notify me when the nodes were changed by a pass. This is how it roughly looked like

      String old_root_str = root.toStringTree();
      pass.process(externs, root);
      String new_root_str = root.toStringTree();
      if (old_root_str.contentEquals(new_root_str)){
          System.out.println("Same: " + pass);
      } else {
          System.out.println("Pass: " + pass + " old: " + old_root_str + " new: " + new_root_str);

What I found strange is that the process method of PhaseOptimizer ran twice. I found out because I had set breakpoints in that method.

In the first run of process, there was only 1 pass that caused a change: inferConsts, but I couldn’t tell what changed based on the toString() output, so this isn’t the pass we are interested in.

In the second run of process, we get this:

Same: pass: beforeMainOptimizations
Pass: [email protected] old: BLOCK [synthetic: 1]
    SCRIPT 1 [synthetic: 1] [source_file: in1.js] [input_id: InputId: in1.js]
        VAR 1 [source_file: in1.js]
            NAME x 1 [source_file: in1.js] [is_constant_var: 1]
                ADD 1 [source_file: in1.js]
                    NUMBER 17.0 1 [source_file: in1.js]
                    NUMBER 25.0 1 [source_file: in1.js]
 new: BLOCK [synthetic: 1] [change_time: 15]
    SCRIPT 1 [synthetic: 1] [source_file: in1.js] [input_id: InputId: in1.js]
        VAR 1 [source_file: in1.js]
            NAME x 1 [source_file: in1.js] [is_constant_var: 1]
                NUMBER 42.0 1 [source_file: in1.js]
Same: pass: beforeModuleMotion

Bingo! Or not?

Multiple passes

We managed to figure out the pass that caused the optimization, but the name of the pass didn’t really help at all.

But at least we know this pass happens before beforeModuleMotion and after beforeMainOptimizations, and because the list of CompilerPass is traversed in order, we can go into DefaultPassConfig and take a look at what is in between these 2 passes.



This basically adds about 10+ PassFactory-ies to the list via the methods getMainOptimizationLoop and getCodeRemovingPasses.

By setting more debug breakpoints, I was able to narrow down my options to those found in getCodeRemovingPasses. Now I guess I just have to read what each pass does, or set breakpoints in every pass and observe what happens!

I think the former isn’t a good idea, because the PhaseOptimizer might run each pass multiple times, and I’ll just be debugging for a long time.

Here, I basically looked at each of them, read the comments and figure out what was likely to be the CompilerPass that did some work. My guess is that PeepholeOptimizationsPass did it.

Digging into the creation of PeepholeOptimizationsPass we see multiple kinds of peephole optimizations

  /** Various peephole optimizations. */
  private final PassFactory peepholeOptimizations =
      new PassFactory("peepholeOptimizations", false) {
    protected CompilerPass create(AbstractCompiler compiler) {
      final boolean late = false;
      return new PeepholeOptimizationsPass(compiler,
            new PeepholeMinimizeConditions(late),
            new PeepholeSubstituteAlternateSyntax(late),
            new PeepholeReplaceKnownMethods(late),
            new PeepholeRemoveDeadCode(),
            new PeepholeFoldConstants(late),
            new PeepholeCollectPropertyAssignments());


I decided to brute force and figure out which of these are responsible for the AST changes, so I basically just removed these AbstractPeepholeOptimization one by one until the AST didn’t change, that way I can figure out which one is responsible.

Here I stumbled upon a funny little problem that took me a good deal of debugging to solve.

Since we figure that the pass happens in getMainOptimizationLoop, I tried commenting that part out, but found that the pass still happened! That was really strange. Here’s the part I commented out:



What I ended up doing was to slowly comment out parts of the getOptimizations method, which getMainOptimizationLoop lives in, and see when I can get the the pass to not be processed.

While going through the file to comment the code I took glances at the code as well and found out that in multiple places PeepholeOptimizationsPass was inserted in to the list of CompilerPass!





To reduce the surface area of search, we will comment out all of these except for 1,



Now we can proceed to comment out parts of peepholeOptimizations to figure out which exact AbstractPeepholeOptimization is doing the work, which is PeepholeFoldConstants.

This optimzation is not that simple to understand because it is made up of multiple smaller peephole optimizations.

Let’s start from the top, which is a PeepholeOptimizationsPass. As per normal, this is a CompilerPass, so the process method is where this happen.

  public void process(Node externs, Node root) {
    NodeTraversal.traverseChangedFunctions(compiler, new FunctionCallback() {
        public void visit(AbstractCompiler compiler, Node root) {
          if (root.isFunction()) {
            root = root.getLastChild();
          do {
            NodeTraversal.traverse(compiler, root, new PeepCallback());
          } while (retraverseOnChange && handler.hasCodeChanged());


In process we see something different, the usage of NodeTraversal.traverseChangedFunctions.

This works similarly to the Callbacks we discussed above, except that the traversal only happens when functions are changed. The callback for this traversal is actually called PeepCallback, which runs each AbstractPeepholeOptimization when visiting each node by calling their optimizeSubtree method.

  private class PeepCallback extends AbstractShallowCallback {
    public void visit(NodeTraversal t, Node n, Node parent) {
      Node currentNode = n, newNode;
      boolean codeChanged = false;
      do {
        codeChanged = false;
        for (AbstractPeepholeOptimization optim : peepholeOptimizations) {
          newNode = optim.optimizeSubtree(currentNode);
          if (newNode != currentNode) {
            codeChanged = true;
            currentNode = newNode;
          if (currentNode == null) {
      } while(codeChanged);


Finally, we found it!

Now we know where to look to find out what PeepholeFoldConstants does.

  Node optimizeSubtree(Node subtree) {
    switch(subtree.getType()) {
      case Token.NEW:
        return tryFoldCtorCall(subtree);

      case Token.TYPEOF:
        return tryFoldTypeof(subtree);

      case Token.NOT:
      case Token.POS:
      case Token.NEG:
      case Token.BITNOT:
        return tryFoldUnaryOperator(subtree);

      case Token.VOID:
        return tryReduceVoid(subtree);

        return tryFoldBinaryOperator(subtree);


Reading the code we can guess which switch case we will land into, the default case.

Here we’re just going to make a guess which method does the optimization, I’m going to pick tryFoldBinaryOperator because it sounds like it.

Jumping in we see a switch statement switching on the type of the subtree, which in our case is an addition. So we dive into the tryFoldAdd method.

      case Token.ADD:
        return tryFoldAdd(subtree, left, right);


We encounter some useful comments here so we can jump straight into the else branch.

    } else {
      // Try arithmetic add
      Node result = tryFoldArithmeticOp(node, left, right);
      if (result != node) {
        return result;
      return tryFoldLeftChildOp(node, left, right);


To verify that this is indeed the optimization we care about, we can jump into the method and just result whatever was passed in.


By commenting out the lines in tryFoldArithmeticOp and just return n, we can verify that the optimization does not run!

We can dig deeper and look into performArithmeticOp, but all we need to know is that it performs the addition, returning a Node. If the addition worked, Node would just be a number, which is the result of the addition (in our case thats 42), and replace n (which was a add subtree), with just a single node!


After this long post, I think it’s worth recapping what happens.

  1. The compiler is set up with options, things like where to get the JS (stdin or a file?)
  2. JavaScript is parsed into a tree
  3. Gather up the list of optimizations that will be run
  4. normalize (which is actually a compiler pass)
  5. Feed the list of optimziations into the PhaseOptimizer
  6. PhaseOptimizer will run through all the optimizations
  7. Each CompilerPass will process the AST via callbacks when traversing the tree
  8. Compiled JavaScript is output (to stdout or file)

There’s way more that goes on, like how the PhaseOptimizer runs the list of optimizations, fixed-point optimizations that can be run multiple times safely, the many different kinds of Callbacks.

But at a high level, this is how things are run.


  1. Open source is awesome. Because Google released this source code, we can look into the code to figure out how things work!
  2. Debuggers are super useful. Because Eclipse, and other IDEs, are such fantastic tools, we can insert breakpoints, jump around code, build and run projects with ease.
  3. Patterns are useful! In this dive into the code, we have already observed a couple of design patterns, namely the Visitor pattern and the Factory pattern. This has allowed the compiler to stay very flexible. I can imagine adding a new optimization pass by declaring a couple of new classes without touching the core of the compiler