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Rock Paper Scissors in Haskell

This is a simple Rock Paper Scissors game in Haskell, it was made as an exercise in learning Haskell, especially the syntax, data constructors, and IO.

How the game looks like now How the game looks like now

Program Design

This is a very simple program. The parts of the code that has to do with the logic is actually very short and simple, because RPS has very simple rules:

-- Player or AI can make any of these moves each turn
data Move = Rock | Paper | Scissors deriving (Show)

-- Player is the current person playing, and AI is our intelligent program!
data Winner = Player | AI | Draw deriving (Show)

-- use a throwaway function getWinner' because
-- we want to be clear that `user' is the first parameter
getWinner :: Move -> Move -> Winner
getWinner user ai = getWinner' user ai
  where getWinner' Rock Paper     = AI
        getWinner' Rock Scissors  = Player
        getWinner' Paper Scissors = AI
        getWinner' Paper Rock     = Player
        getWinner' Scissors Rock  = AI
        getWinner' Scissors Paper = Player
        getWinner' _        _     = Draw

-- a heuristics
makeAIMove :: Move
makeAIMove = Paper

I think the getWinner method is quite ugly, but I haven’t thought of a good way to write it. Maybe I can differentiate the Move to UserMove or AIMove, something along those lines, so I can make use of the type checker to ensure what that the arguments are fed correctly.

The AI is currently really smart, reason is that I’m not concerned with learning about random numbers now, I just want this to be an exercise in writing Haskell, doing IO and some other stuff.

Interaction with User

This is a text-based game, so there are quite a few instances where the program prints a line, and gets another line of input from the user, which resulted in me writing this helper:

getResponse :: String -> IO String
getResponse s = putStrLn s >> getLine

The >> operator basically discards whatever output putStrLn s gives. This is required because getLine does not take any arguments.

Initially I wanted to define all the interaction strings else where, thereby removing magic constants, and also stick to the DRY principle:

welcomeMessage :: String
welcomeMessage = "Lets play Rock Paper Scissors"

But I found this to be too verbose and distracting. I decided that instead of doing this, I should refactor it such that a string is only used at a single place. I made good progress with that, and the only String that is repeated is the prompt/insructions.

Handling invalid input

I handled invalid input using Either and recursion. Either allows me to determine if the user’s input was valid or not, and this check is done by convertToMove:

-- handle invalid cases
convertToMove :: String -> Either String Move
convertToMove input = convert $ map toLower input
  where convert "r" = Right Rock
        convert "s" = Right Scissors
        convert "p" = Right Paper
        convert _   = Left "I don't know that move!"

The above function is called by another function, getValidMove, whos job is to get a valid move from the user. By pattern matching against the value of convertToMove, it can either display the error message when it is a Left, and recursively call itself, or it will return the Move.

getValidMove :: IO Move
getValidMove = do
  userMove <- convertToMove <$> getResponse "What's your move?"
  case userMove of
    Left msg -> do
      putStrLn msg
      putStrLn "R for rock, P for paper, S for scissors."
      getValidMove
    Right m  -> return m

This is called from within the game function. game runs a single round of RPS, which is marked by an outcome, or a Winner.

game :: IO ()
game = do
  userMove <- getValidMove
  play userMove makeAIMove
  choice <- getResponse "Continue? Y/N"
  continue choice
    where play m ai = putStrLn $ announceWinner $ getWinner m ai
          continue "y" = game
          continue _ = do putStrLn "Thanks for playing!"

announceWinner’s role is to give the correct String output given an outcome of a game. This is to showcase how creative I can be with messages :P

-- Gives the correct anouncement String for different outcomes of the game
announceWinner :: Winner -> String
announceWinner AI     = "The AI won :)"
announceWinner Draw   = "It was a draw!"
announceWinner Player = "Yay you won!"

As explained above, getValidMove will always give a IO Move, so the value of userMove is always a Move. This delegation of retrieving and validating the user’s input for a move simplifies this function. I should adopt this way of building and composing functions more.

The entire program runs in the main function:

main :: IO ()
main = do
  -- Message to user when the user first runs this program
  putStrLn "Lets play Rock Paper Scissors"
  -- Instructions on ohw to play this game
  putStrLn "R for rock, P for paper, S for scissors."
  game

This function is extremely simple, it just prints a welcome message and instructions for new players.

So that’s it, my first haskell program from scratch! Pretty happy with it now, next idea I will try is probably another simple game, like tic tac toe or some.